bosznia-hercegovina köztársaság fordítása a magyar - német szótárban, a Glosbe ingyenes online szótárcsaládjában. Böngésszen milliónyi szót és kifejezést a. A(z) „Bosznia-Hercegovina” kategóriába tartozó lapok. A következő 19 lap található a kategóriában, összesen 19 lapból. Bosznia-Hercegovina utáni közjogi helyzete számos nemzetközi jogi és alkotmányjogi problémát vetett fel, amelyek egyrészt a Berlini. Szerződés.
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The same level of unrest or activism did not occur in the Republika Srpska , but hundreds of people also gathered in support of protests in the town of Banja Luka against its separate government.
The protests marked the largest outbreak of public anger over high unemployment and two decades of political inertia in the country since the end of the Bosnian War in It has a coastline about 20 kilometres 12 miles long surrounding the city of Neum.
The country is mostly mountainous, encompassing the central Dinaric Alps. The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian Plain , while in the south it borders the Adriatic.
The Dinaric Alps generally run in a southeast-northwest direction, and get higher towards the south. The geological composition of the Dinaric chain of mountains in Bosnia consists primarily of limestone including Mesozoic limestone , with deposits of iron , coal , zinc , manganese , bauxite , lead , and salt present in some areas, especially in central and northern Bosnia.
Most forest areas are in the centre, east and west parts of Bosnia. Herzegovina has drier Mediterranean climate, with dominant karst topography.
Northern Bosnia Posavina contains very fertile agricultural land along the River Sava and the corresponding area is heavily farmed.
This farmland is a part of the Pannonian Plain stretching into neighboring Croatia and Serbia. The country has only 20 kilometres 12 miles of coastline,   around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton.
Although the city is surrounded by Croatian peninsulas, by international law, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a right of passage to the outer sea.
Sarajevo is the capital  and largest city. There are seven major rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Phytogeographically , Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region and Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region.
According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be subdivided into three ecoregions: The Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy , whereby executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Legislative power is vested in both the Council of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Members of the Parliamentary Assembly are chosen according to a proportional representation system. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a liberal democracy.
It has several levels of political structuring, according to the Dayton accord. The most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Since , the power of the entities relative to the State government has decreased significantly. Nonetheless, entities still have numerous powers to themselves.
It officially belongs to both, but is governed by neither, and functions under a decentralized system of local government. They are unique to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, which consists of ten of them.
Each has a cantonal government, which is under the law of the Federation as a whole. Some cantons are ethnically mixed and have special laws to ensure the equality of all constituent people.
The fourth level of political division in Bosnia and Herzegovina is the municipality. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into 74 municipalities, and Republika Srpska into Municipalities also have their own local government, and are typically based on the most significant city or place in their territory.
As such, many municipalities have a long tradition and history with their present boundaries. Some others, however, were only created following the recent war after traditional municipalities were split by the Inter-Entity Boundary Line.
Each canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of several municipalities, which are divided into local communities.
Besides entities, cantons, and municipalities, Bosnia and Herzegovina also has four "official" cities. The territory and government of the cities of Banja Luka and Mostar corresponds to the municipalities of the same name, while the cities of Sarajevo and East Sarajevo officially consist of several municipalities.
Cities have their own city government whose power is in between that of the municipalities and cantons or the entity, in the case of Republika Srpska.
As a result of the Dayton Accords , the civilian peace implementation is supervised by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina selected by the Peace Implementation Council.
The High Representative has many governmental and legislative powers, including the dismissal of elected and non-elected officials.
More recently, several central institutions have been established such as defense ministry , security ministry, state court, indirect taxation service and so on in the process of transferring part of the jurisdiction from the entities to the state.
The Chair of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina rotates among three members Bosniak , Serb , Croat , each elected as the Chair for an eight-month term within their four-year term as a member.
The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people with Federation voters voting for the Bosniak and the Croat, and the Republika Srpska voters for the Serb.
He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade, and others as appropriate. The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It consists of two houses: The House of Peoples has 15 delegates chosen by parliaments of the entities, two-thirds of which come from the Federation 5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks and one-third from the Republika Srpska 5 Serbs.
The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members elected by the people under a form of proportional representation PR , two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska.
The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the supreme, final arbiter of legal matters. It is composed of nine members: However, the highest political authority in the country is the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the chief executive officer for the international civilian presence in the country and is selected by the European Union.
Since , the High Representative has been able to bypass the elected parliamentary assembly, and since has been able to remove elected officials.
The methods selected by the High Representative have been criticized as undemocratic. The Ministry of Defense was founded in The Ground Forces number 14, active and 7, reserve personnel.
They are armed with a mix of American, Yugoslavian, Soviet, and European-made weaponry, vehicles, and military equipment.
A domestic production program is now underway to ensure that army units are equipped with the correct ammunition.
All three deployed groups have been commended by their respective international forces as well as the Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The international assistance operations are still ongoing. The Air Force has seen improvements in the last few years with added funds for aircraft repairs and improved cooperation with the Ground Forces as well as to the citizens of the country.
The Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina is pursuing the acquisition of new aircraft including helicopters and perhaps even fighter jets.
EU integration is one of the main political objectives of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it initiated the Stabilisation and Association Process in Countries participating in the SAP have been offered the possibility to become, once they fulfill the necessary conditions, Member States of the EU.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is therefore a potential candidate country for EU accession. The implementation of the Dayton Accords of has focused the efforts of policymakers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the international community, on regional stabilization in the countries-successors of the former Yugoslavia.
Within Bosnia and Herzegovina, relations with its neighbors of Croatia , Serbia and Montenegro have been fairly stable since the signing of the Dayton Agreement in Full membership was expected in or , depending on the progress of reforms.
According to the census , Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,,, while the UNHCR unofficial census showed a decrease to 3,, Between and , political disagreements made it impossible to organize a census.
A census had been planned for ,  and then for ,  but was delayed until October The census found a total population of 3,, people in 1.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to three ethnic " constituent peoples ", namely Bosniaks , Serbs , and Croats , plus a number of smaller groups including Jews and Roma.
The smallest groups are Agnosticism 0. As a result, the wording of the entity constitutions was changed and all three languages were made official in both entities.
Use of one of the three languages has become a marker of ethnic identity. According to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , Bosnia and Herzegovina recognizes the following minority languages: Due to expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars , the number of ethnic Germans in Bosnia and Herzegovina was drastically diminished.
In a census, Bosnia faces the dual-problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing transitional liberal market reforms to its formerly mixed economy.
The war in the s, caused a dramatic change in the Bosnian economy. Annual inflation is the lowest relative to other countries in the region at 1.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has displayed positive progress in the previous years, which decisively moved its place from the lowest income equality rank of income equality rankings fourteen out of nations.
This was scheduled to be approved in September Overall value of foreign direct investment — . By some estimates, grey economy is In , Bosnia and Herzegovina mostly exported car seats , electricity , processed wood , aluminum and furniture.
In the same year, it mostly imported crude oil , automobiles , motor oil , coal and briquettes. The unemployment rate in was In , the unemployment should be In , the unemployment rate should go down to In , Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked 3rd in the world in terms of the number of new jobs created by foreign investment, relative to the number of inhabitants.
In the first nine months of , Bosnia and Herzegovina exported goods worth 8. This represents a jump of 3. The share of public debt in gross domestic product is In the first 7 months of , , tourists visited the country, a For the first nine months of , direct foreign investment in Bosnia and Herzegovina amount to KM In the first 11 months of , 1,, tourists visited Bosnia-Herzegovina, an increase of The World Bank is predicting that the economy will grow 3.
Bosnia and Herzegovina was placed 83rd on the Index of Economic Freedom for The total rating for Bosnia and Herzegovina is This position represents some progress relative to the 91st place in This result is below the regional level, but still above the global average, making Bosnia and Herzegovina a "moderately free" country.
Railway operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina are successors of the Yugoslav Railways within the country boundaries following independence from the Former Yugoslavia in The Bosnian communications market was fully liberalised in January There are three landline telephone providers, although each one predominantly serves a partile services are provided by three operators, with nationwide services.
There are many national publications, only some of which include the Dnevni Avaz Daily Voice , founded in , and Jutarnje Novine Morning News in circulation in Sarajevo.
Novi Plamen , a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication. The international news station Al Jazeera maintains a sister channel that caters to the Balkan region, Al Jazeera Balkans , broadcasting out of and based in Sarajevo.
Additionally, the country is the most liberal in terms of freedom of the press in the region, ranking 43rd internationally.
According to projections by the World Tourism Organization , Bosnia and Herzegovina will have the third highest tourism growth rate in the world between and In , 1,, tourists visited Bosnia and Herzegovina, an increase of In , when ranking the best cities in the world, Lonely Planet placed Sarajevo , the national capital  and host of the Winter Olympic Games , as 43 on the list.
Bosnia has also become an increasingly popular skiing and Ecotourism destination. Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the last undiscovered natural regions of the southern area of the Alps, with vast tracts of wild and untouched nature attracting adventurers and nature lovers.
National Geographic magazine named Bosnia and Herzegovina as the best mountain biking adventure destination for Whitewater rafting is somewhat of a national pastime , with three rivers, including the deepest river canyon in Europe, the Tara River Canyon.
Most recently, the Huffington Post named Bosnia and Herzegovina the "9th Greatest Adventure in the World for ", adding that the country boasts "the cleanest water and air in Europe; the greatest untouched forests; and the most wildlife.
The best way to experience is the three rivers trip, which purls through the best the Balkans have to offer. Higher education has a long and rich tradition in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The first bespoke higher-education institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in Numerous other religious schools then followed.
In , under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia law school began a five-year program. In the s post-bachelaurate graduate degrees became available.
There are various other institutions of higher education, including: Also, Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to several private and international higher education institutions, some of which are:.
Primary schooling lasts for nine years. Secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools typically Gymnasiums where studies typically last for four years.
All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the Matura and can enroll in any tertiary educational institution or academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the governing body or institution.
Students graduating technical subjects obtain a Diploma. The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the population.
Each period made its influence felt and contributed to a greater diversity of cultures and architectural language in this region. Some television, magazines, and newspapers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are state-owned, and some are for-profit corporations funded by advertising , subscription , and other sales-related revenues.
The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina guarantees freedom of speech. In the early post-war period — , media development was guided mainly by international donors and cooperation agencies, who invested to help reconstruct, diversify, democratize and professionalize media outlets.
Post-war developments included the establishment of an independent Communication Regulatory Agency, the adoption of a Press Code, the establishment of the Press Council, the decriminalization of label and defamation, the introduction of a rather advanced Freedom of Access to Information Law, and the creation of a Public Service Broadcasting System from the formerly state-owned broadcaster.
Yet, internationally backed positive developments have been often obstructed by domestic elites, and the professionalisation of media and journalists has proceeded only slowly.
High levels of partisanship and linkages between the media and the political systems hinder the adherence to professional code of conducts. Magazines such as Novi Plamen or Sarajevske sveske are some of the more prominent publications covering cultural and literary themes.
However, only with the arrival of Austro-Hungarians did the painting renaissance in Bosnia really begin to flourish. The first educated artists from European academies appeared with the beginning of the 20th century.
In , Ars Aevi , a museum of contemporary art that includes works by renowned world artists was founded in Sarajevo. Typical Bosnian and Herzegovinian songs are ganga, rera , and the traditional Slavic music for the folk dances such as kolo and from Ottoman era the most popular is sevdalinka.
The gusle is used mainly to recite epic poems in a usually dramatic tone. Probably the most distinctive and identifiably "Bosnian" of music, Sevdalinka is a kind of emotional, melancholic folk song that often describes sad subjects such as love and loss, the death of a dear person or heartbreak.
Sevdalinkas were traditionally performed with a saz , a Turkish string instrument, which was later replaced by the accordion.
However the more modern arrangement, to the derision of some purists, is typically a vocalist accompanied by the accordion along with snare drums, upright bass, guitars, clarinets and violins.
The gusle , an instrument found throughout the Balkans , is also used to accompany ancient Slavic epic poems. These bands first appeared around World War I and became popular in the s.
This is the third oldest music following after the sevdalinka and ilahija. Self-taught people, mostly in two or three members of the different choices of old instruments, mostly in the violin, sacking, saz , drums, flutes zurle or wooden flute, as others have already called, the original performers of Bosnian music that can not be written notes, transmitted by ear from generation to generation, family is usually hereditary.
It is thought to be brought from Persia-Kalesi tribe that settled in the area of present Sprecanski valleys and hence probably the name Kalesija.
In this part of Bosnia it is the most common. Again, it became the leader of First World War onwards, as well as 60 years in the field Sprecanski doline.
This kind of music was enjoyed by all three peoples in Bosnia, Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs, and it contributed a lot to reconcile people socializing, entertainment and other organizations through festivala.
Songs are performed preferably in a diphthong , the first and second voice which is a special secret performance of this music and some performers sing in troglasju as they do Kalesijski triple that was recorded in , as the first written record of the tone on the album, along with Higurashi no naku.
Sarajevo is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of festivals. Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, in moderate quantities.
Most dishes are light, as they are cooked in lots of water; the sauces are fully natural, consisting of little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish.
Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic , peppers , cucumbers , carrots, cabbage , mushrooms , spinach , zucchini , dried beans , fresh beans, plums , milk, paprika and cream called Pavlaka.
Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. As a result of the Ottoman administration for almost years, Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish , Greek , and other former Ottoman and Mediterranean cuisines.
However, because of years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include primarily beef and lamb.
Herzegovinian loza similar to Italian Grappa but less sweet is very popular. In the south, distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy and supply all of ex-Yugoslav alcohol factories brandy is the base of most alcoholic drinks.
Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the ninth country in the entire world by per capita coffee consumption.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes, both as a state in Yugoslavia and independently after The most important international sporting event in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the 14th Winter Olympics , held in Sarajevo from 7 to 19 February Association football is the most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It dates from , but its popularity grew significantly after World War I. Sergej Barbarez , who played for several clubs in the German Bundesliga including Borussia Dortmund , Hamburger SV and Bayer Leverkusen was joint-top scorer in the —01 Bundesliga season with 22 goals.
Bosnia and Herzegovina was the world champion of volleyball at the Summer Paralympics and volleyball at the Summer Paralympics.
Many among those on the team lost their legs in the Bosnian War. The Bosnian wartime militia Schutzkorps , which became known for its persecution of Serbs, was overwhelmingly Muslim.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the regions of the sovereign state, see Bosnia region and Herzegovina. For other uses, see Bosnia disambiguation and BiH disambiguation.
Bosna i Hercegovina Босна и Херцеговина. The High Representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton peace agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.
Early history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Middle Ages. Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Ottoman Bosnia. History of Bosnia and Herzegovina — Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Topographic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union. Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina religion percent Islam. Largest municipalities in Bosnia and Herzegovina census final results .
Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. List of companies of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sites of interest in Sarajevo. Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Media of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Literature of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Art of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
List of Bosnia and Herzegovina patriotic songs. List of Bosnia-Herzegovina films. Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina portal. Retrieved 6 March Party Politics in the Western Balkans. Handbook of Federal Countries, International Foundation for Electoral Systems.
Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 29 October Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 12 February Sarajevo Film Festival Official Website.
Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 16 September The letter reminded believers of the importance of their vote and encouraged Croat parties to form coalitions so that no Croat vote would be wasted.
It also urged them to oppose U. The State Law on Religious Freedom reaffirms the right of every citizen to religious education.
The law calls for an official representative of the various churches or religious communities to be responsible for teaching religious studies in all public and private preschools, primary schools, and universities throughout Bosnia.
These individuals are employees of the municipality in which they teach but have been accredited by the religious body governing the curriculum. However, the law was not always fully implemented, particularly in segregated school systems or where there was political resistance from nationalist party officials at the municipal level.
During the period covered by this report, the entity, cantonal, and municipal governments gave varying levels of financial support to the four traditional religious communities - Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish.
Religious communities tended to receive the most funding in areas where their adherents were in the majority. Religious education is largely decentralized, as is the education system generally.
By law, students or their parents, in the case of primary school students may choose not to attend the classes. However, students of the majority religion and sometimes also of minority religious groups faced pressure from teachers and peers to attend religious instruction, and most did so.
Children who are reluctant to be singled out as different from their classmates often attend instruction of the majority religion, even if it is not the religion they practice at home.
If a sufficient number of students of minority religious group s attend a particular school 20 in the RS, 15 in the Federation , the school must organize religion classes on their behalf.
However, in rural areas there are usually no qualified religious representatives available to teach religious studies to the handful of minority students.
Minority students are often widely scattered across remote areas, making it logistically difficult to provide classes even when a teacher is available.
In cantons with Croat majorities, all Croat students attend the "elective" 1-hour weekly Catholic religion course for primary and middle schools.
Use of religious symbolism by the majority group in art classes, such as minority children in Bosniak majority areas being tasked to draw mosques or those in Christian majority areas being asked to draw crosses, continued to be a problem.
Parents may enroll their children in private schools for religious reasons. These Islamic secondary schools provide training for students who want to become religious officials as well as general education to prepare students for university studies.
There is one Serbian Orthodox secondary school in Foca. Although primarily Croat, these schools are open to students of other ethnicities and religious groups.
Some of these centers have both primary and secondary schools, and although the principals are priests, the majority of teachers are not religious officials.
The curriculum is a combination of Bosniak and Croat curricula used in the Federation. Facilities also exist for the three largest religious communities at the university level.
Weak administrative and judicial systems effectively restricted religious freedom and posed major obstacles to safeguarding the rights of religious minorities.
In some cases local governments made improvements in protecting religious freedom; however, serious problems remained, including an atmosphere in which violations of religious freedom occurred.
For example, local police rarely made arrests in cases of vandalism against religious buildings or violence and harassment against religious officials or believers.
Successful prosecutions were extremely rare. Local police frequently alleged that juveniles, intoxicated individuals, or mentally unstable persons were responsible for these attacks.
Lack of uniform protection posed obstacles to safeguarding minority rights, despite improved police and judicial protection for minorities in some parts of the country.
Ethnic quotas set for the recruitment of new officers into police academies were observed, but reforms intended to establish a countrywide effective, professional, multi-ethnic police force failed.
Police forces as well as entity and local governments frequently allowed or encouraged an atmosphere in which violations of religious freedom could take place.
In some cases the reluctance of police and prosecutors to aggressively investigate and prosecute crimes against religious minorities remained a major obstacle to safeguarding the rights of religious minorities.
The appropriation of religious symbols and buildings for political purposes in combination with restrictions on religious services and ceremonies had a negative impact on inter-religious dialogue and inter-ethnic relations in many communities.
Authorities of the majority religious or ethnic group often discriminated against those of the minority group in matters related to municipal services, including security and education.
Governments at the local level restricted religious services and ceremonies. In the eastern RS municipality of Bratunac, the Serb majority municipal assembly repeatedly denied a permit for the Islamic community to build a cemetery and memorial on its property surrounding a downtown mosque.
Bosniak organizers hoped to bury 98 identified victims of a massacre in Bratunac in which more than persons, including the local imam, were killed.
After more than a year of repeated requests and appeals from Bosniak organizers, the RS Government and the international community intervened, and the parties reached a last-minute agreement that enabled the burials to take place at a different location on the planned date.
In September in the eastern RS town of Zvornik, the Saint Sava primary school launched the new school year with a religious ceremony chaired by a Serbian Orthodox priest in the presence of more than Bosniak students and parents.
The incident received strong condemnation from the Islamic community, Bosniak associations, and the RS Minister of Education and Culture, who called the decision "inappropriate.
There were a number of controversial and highly politicized cases involving the illegal construction of religious buildings or monuments on private or government-owned land.
In these cases the buildings or monuments were built to send a political message to minority believers about the dominance of the majority ethnic and religious group in that area, creating ethnic tensions and impeding the process of reconciliation.
On September 11, , for the second consecutive year, the local Orthodox priest celebrated Mass in the church, which was attended by a large number of attendees singing songs and wearing traditional clothing.
Local police were present, and there was no violence. In June RS and Serbian Orthodox Church officials agreed in principle to relocate the church but had not found an alternate location by the end of the period covered by this report.
A wooden Serbian Orthodox church unlawfully built on private Bosniak owned land in the town of Kotorsko continued to be the source of legal and ethnic conflict.
Although deadlines were set by authorities for removal of the church, no action had been taken by the end of the period covered by this report.
The presence of a large stone cross and cement foundations for the eventual addition of more crosses in the ethnically divided town of Stolac in Herzegovina also remained contentious.
In September the Federation Constitutional Court upheld the constitutionality of the law, and the Federation Ministry of Spatial Planning was able again to launch an initiative for removal of the cross and foundations.
While the Federation Ministry of Spatial Planning had the legal authority to undertake such an initiative, it was reluctant to do so out of concern that the action would increase inter-ethnic tensions during the election year.
In May members of a Bosniak NGO illegally destroyed the additional foundations, but the cross remained. Traditional religious communities all had extensive claims for restitution of property that the communist government of the former Yugoslavia nationalized after World War II.
The State Law on Religious Freedom provides religious communities the right to restitution of expropriated property throughout the country "in accordance with the law.
However, as of mid no action had been taken, and many believed that the law would not be passed without changes. In the absence of any state legislation specifically governing restitution, return of former religious properties continued on an ad hoc basis at the discretion of municipal officials but was usually completed only in favor of the majority group.
Many officials used property restitution cases as a tool of political patronage, rendering religious leaders dependent on politicians to regain property taken from religious communities.
Other unresolved restitution claims were politically and legally complicated. The Jewish and Muslim communities also asserted historic claims to many commercial and residential properties in Sarajevo.
The Catholic community maintained a large number of similar claims in Banja Luka. The Islamic community filed the original lawsuit in but began proceedings again when an out-of-court settlement failed because the city would not make the requested admission of guilt.
During the period covered by this report, the Federation municipality of Travnik partially complied with a decision by the Human Rights Chamber renamed the Human Rights Commission of the Constitutional Court ordering the municipal government to relocate a public school housed in a building formerly owned by the Catholic archdiocese.
The municipality returned half the building to the archdiocese for use as part of its Catholic school center. However, the other half remained in use as a public school.
The court ordered the public school to move out of the building by July 1, , but by that date authorities had not allocated funding for a new school building, and the building remained in use as a public school.
Minority religious communities also encountered difficulty in obtaining permits for new churches and mosques.
The Catholic Church continued to seek permission, first solicited in , to build a new church in the Sarajevo neighborhood of Grbavica, but complained that the local authorities, a Bosniak majority, refused to grant the permit.
There were no reports of religious prisoners or detainees in the country, or of forced religious conversion. There were a reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice, and prominent societal leaders did not always take positive steps to promote religious freedom.
Compared to the previous reporting period, attacks on religious objects and religious officials increased significantly, particularly in the campaign months before the national elections, during which nationalist rhetoric employed by certain political parties heightened religious and ethnic tensions.
Because they are powerful symbols of religious identification and ethnicity, clerics and religious buildings were favored targets.
Most religious leaders severely criticized violence and nationalism against their own group but could be less vocal in condemning acts against members of other groups.
Those in the majority religious or ethnic group had an advantage in employment opportunities. Discrimination remained a serious problem in the RS, particularly in the eastern part, and in Croat-dominated areas of the Federation; discrimination against non-Muslims appeared to worsen in some Bosniak-majority areas where more conservative Islamic communities resided.
Sarajevo, the Bosniak-majority capital, preserved in part its traditional role as a multiethnic city; however, complaints of discrimination persisted.
Some non-Muslims reported feeling isolated and marginalized in the capital. The number of incidents against religious symbols, clerics, and property in all three ethnic majority areas increased, especially during the period immediately prior to the October national elections.
Local police generally did not conduct serious investigations into such incidents. For example, in July unidentified perpetrators sprayed gunfire into a Muslim cemetery in Trebinje, damaging several tombstones.
In the same month and city, unidentified persons also threw an explosive device at the home of a Bosniak returnee.
When police concluded that the attacks were the pranks of local youngsters, the local Muslim community called for the dismissal of the police chief for not performing a full investigation.
Similar reports of local police assigning blame for these incidents on pranksters, drunkards, or the mentally unstable were frequent.
There were a number of acts of violence and vandalism against Muslim religious targets throughout the country. In October a rocket-propelled grenade destroyed a large portion of the Jasenica Mosque near Mostar; this was the most severe attack since the end of the war.
The Jasenica Mosque became a source of controversy when local Croats objected to its reconstruction on grounds that its new design violated a law permitting only reconstruction in the same style as the original prewar building.
City officials ordered removal of the mosque, but the order had not been carried out before the attack. In August an explosive device was detonated at the grave of former president Alija Izetbegovic, destroying his tombstone and leaving a large crater at the grave.
Serbian Orthodox sites were also targets of vandalism. In December unknown individuals stoned the Orthodox church in Kakanj, and in November several gravestones in the Orthodox cemetery in the village of Mioci were damaged.
In August unidentified persons wrote threatening, anti-Serb graffiti on the Serbian Orthodox church in Petrovo.Nationals of Russia and Ukraine may enter Bosnia and Herzegovina visa-free for up to 90 days within a two-month period with a valid passport. For online casino win standards, see the coin bosznia hercegovina table. Bosznia hercegovina - Vielen Dank für Ihre Bewertung! Ich bad tolz casino Baroness Ludford nur Recht geben. A cheap, tasty and readily available snack is "Burek", a pastry made of filo dough and stuffed with meat simply Burekcheese Sirnicaspinach Zeljanicapotatoes Krompirusa or apple Jabukovaca. This besten spiele der welt lists the most pressing and important azubi online ihk problems. Many pickled foods are also served as condiments, such as pickled peppers, onions, cucumbers ["pickles"], and tomatoes. Retrieved 3 January Party Politics in the Western Balkans. Refined petroleum products - production: According to the censusBosnia and Herzegovina had a population of 4,, while the UNHCR unofficial casino taxi showed a decrease to 3, Airports - billionaire casino chips unpaved runways: Submit questions or comments online. Trains are infrequent and slow. The Early Bosznia hercegovina Balkans: State-Building and Legitimation, —Bloomington: There are various other institutions of higher education, including: Refined petroleum bosznia hercegovina - imports: Electricity - from jokerizer casino renewable sources: The best way to experience is the three rivers trip, which purls through the best the Balkans have to offer. Human Development Report The northeastern parts reach into the Pannonian Plainwhile in the south it borders the Adriatic. Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Bester basketballspieler rural areas try to stay on paved areas if possible. Campsites are not very common. Serbia delimited about half of the platinum play online casino login with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Three more sections are under construction, and the entire stretch of the European Vc corridor motorway in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is due to be completed by Petrol stations can be hard to find in some spots - often the best place to fill up is on the edge of towns and cities rather than in them. When finished, this highway will connect the northern part of Croatia with the coast as well as the new highway from Zagreb to Split, which eventually will extend to Dubrovnik. Vielen Dank für Ihre Bewertung! Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Die Mitgliedst aa ten und Bosnien und Herzegowina be sc hränken die Durchbeförderung Drittstaatsangehör ig er und Staatenloser au f die Fälle, in denen diese Personen nicht auf direktem Wege in den Bestimmungsstaat rückgeführt werden können. There is also a lack of carriages and trains to provide frequent services - even on the busy lines like Mostar-Sarajevo, Tuzla-Banja Luka and Sarajevo-Banja Luka. The best way to get around with public transport is with bus and train Federation  , RS . In several of those towns there are resorts specially geared towards the needs of the angler. Tuzla International Airport was recently given hub status by Wizzair and now flies to several destinations in the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia. Ehegatten der in Absatz 1 genannten Personen, die eine andere Staatsangehörigkeit besitzen, vorausgesetzt, dass sie das Recht, in das Hoheitsgeb ie t Bosnien un d Herzegowinas e inz ureisen und sic h dort aufzu ha lten, besitzen oder er halten, es sei denn, sie verfügen über ein eigenständiges Aufenthaltsrecht in dem ersuchenden Mitgliedstaat. Buses are plentiful in and around Bosnia. From Mostar , Banja Luka and Tuzla there are also frequent international services. Powered by WordPress und Graphene-Theme. The train services are operated by the two separate entities based on the political division of the country , which results in the locomotives being changed rather often. The Unac river and its canyon offer great canyoning route.